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Elasticsearch插入文档

Monster
2023-07-18 / 0 评论 / 2 点赞 / 70 阅读 / 8275 字 / 正在检测是否收录...
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Elasticsearch插入文档

插入之前需要了解一下标识符的概念

文档标识符

  • 每一个ES文档都有一个索引内唯一的标识符(identifier),类似关系数据库中的主键

  • 标识符由用户提供,使用HTTP PUT操作添加,例如将关系数据库中数据导入ES

  • 标识符有ES自动生成,使用HTTP POST操作添加,UUID,例如将网站日志导入ES

PUT插入

创建索引ffbf

PUT /ffbf
{
  "settings": {
    "index":{
      "number_of_shards":2,
      "number_of_replicas":2
    }
  }
}

在ffbf索引带ID插入文档,_doc后面就是自定义的ID

PUT /ffbf/_doc/123
{
  "name":"Monster",
  "age":26,
  "address":"天安云谷xx栋xx层",
  "url":"ffbf.top"
}

返回结果,可以看见_id为123

{
  "_index" : "ffbf",
  "_type" : "_doc",
  "_id" : "123",
  "_version" : 1,
  "result" : "created",
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 3,
    "successful" : 3,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "_seq_no" : 0,
  "_primary_term" : 1
}

查询一下ffbf索引

GET /ffbf/_search

返回结果

{
  "took" : 808,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 2,
    "successful" : 2,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : {
      "value" : 1,
      "relation" : "eq"
    },
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "ffbf",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "123",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "Monster",
          "age" : 26,
          "address" : "天安云谷xx栋xx层",
          "url" : "ffbf.top"
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

小技巧:Elastic开发工具有自动补全提示命令非常好用,如果你想要在服务器使用curl命令一系列操作,可以直接点击小扳手选择复制为cURL

然后去服务器操作

[root@postgresql ~]# curl -XGET "http://192.168.170.111:9200/ffbf/_search"
{"took":2,"timed_out":false,"_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"skipped":0,"failed":0},"hits":{"total":{"value":1,"relation":"eq"},"max_score":1.0,"hits":[{"_index":"ffbf","_type":"_doc","_id":"123","_score":1.0,"_source":{
  "name":"Monster",
  "age":26,
  "address":"天安云谷xx栋xx层",
  "url":"ffbf.top"
}
}]}}[root@postgresql ~]#

PUT重复插入

我们重复执行一下刚才的插入操作会怎么样?

PUT /ffbf/_doc/123
{
  "name":"Monster",
  "age":26,
  "address":"天安云谷xx栋xx层",
  "url":"ffbf.top"
}

返回结果如下,result由created变成了updated状态,版本递增变成2了,做了一个更新的操作,由于没有更改内容,所以查询索引返回的结果还是一样的

{
  "_index" : "ffbf",
  "_type" : "_doc",
  "_id" : "123",
  "_version" : 2,
  "result" : "updated",
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 3,
    "successful" : 3,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "_seq_no" : 1,
  "_primary_term" : 1
}

POST插入

使用post插入不用指定id,会自动生成一个id

POST /ffbf/_doc
{
  "name":"Helen",
  "age":20,
  "address":"天安云谷xx栋xx层",
  "url":"qqbq.top"
}

返回结果,自己生成了一个唯一的标识符id

{
  "_index" : "ffbf",
  "_type" : "_doc",
  "_id" : "SQMeaYkB24MJMrhTgLUX",
  "_version" : 1,
  "result" : "created",
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 3,
    "successful" : 3,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "_seq_no" : 2,
  "_primary_term" : 1
}

POST重复插入

同样,再执行一遍

POST /ffbf/_doc
{
  "name":"Helen",
  "age":20,
  "address":"天安云谷xx栋xx层",
  "url":"qqbq.top"
}

返回结果如下,_id变了,result还是created创建状态。因为post每次都会生成一个唯一的id所以每次都会创建一个文档,不会覆盖去做一个更新的操作。

{
  "_index" : "ffbf",
  "_type" : "_doc",
  "_id" : "SgMgaYkB24MJMrhTTrUM",
  "_version" : 1,
  "result" : "created",
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 3,
    "successful" : 3,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "_seq_no" : 3,
  "_primary_term" : 1
}

查询索引

GET /ffbf/_search

返回结果如下,可以看见我们总共执行了2次put、2次post插入,但是只有3个文档,put第2次做了个更新操作,而post不带id每次都会创建个文档,而我们也没有改动数据重复插入所以可以看见最后两个文档除了id不同其它数据都一样。

{
  "took" : 746,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 2,
    "successful" : 2,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : {
      "value" : 3,
      "relation" : "eq"
    },
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "ffbf",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "123",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "Monster",
          "age" : 26,
          "address" : "天安云谷xx栋xx层",
          "url" : "ffbf.top"
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "ffbf",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "SQMeaYkB24MJMrhTgLUX",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "Helen",
          "age" : 20,
          "address" : "天安云谷xx栋xx层",
          "url" : "qqbq.top"
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "ffbf",
        "_type" : "_doc",
        "_id" : "SgMgaYkB24MJMrhTTrUM",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "Helen",
          "age" : 20,
          "address" : "天安云谷xx栋xx层",
          "url" : "qqbq.top"
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

_create避免PUT覆盖文档(更新操作)

Elasticsearch提供了_create可以避免文档被覆盖,如下将PUT的_doc跟换成_create,同样带id为123执行

PUT /ffbf/_create/123
{
  "name":"Monster",
  "age":26,
  "address":"天安云谷xx栋xx层",
  "url":"ffbf.top"
}

返回结果,报错提示版本冲突引擎异常,文档已存在

{
  "error" : {
    "root_cause" : [
      {
        "type" : "version_conflict_engine_exception",
        "reason" : "[123]: version conflict, document already exists (current version [2])",
        "index_uuid" : "7zMVV6IrQt6KrZBdIi26bw",
        "shard" : "0",
        "index" : "ffbf"
      }
    ],
    "type" : "version_conflict_engine_exception",
    "reason" : "[123]: version conflict, document already exists (current version [2])",
    "index_uuid" : "7zMVV6IrQt6KrZBdIi26bw",
    "shard" : "0",
    "index" : "ffbf"
  },
  "status" : 409
}

更换一个文档不存在的id执行,例如id为456

PUT /ffbf/_create/456
{
  "name":"Monster",
  "age":26,
  "address":"天安云谷xx栋xx层",
  "url":"ffbf.top"
}

返回结果,创建成功

{
  "_index" : "ffbf",
  "_type" : "_doc",
  "_id" : "456",
  "_version" : 1,
  "result" : "created",
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 3,
    "successful" : 3,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "_seq_no" : 0,
  "_primary_term" : 1
}

自动创建索引

我们在最开始创建了个ffbf索引,这是我们手动创建的,而ES本身是默认开启了自动创建索引的。

action.auto_create_index     #默认为true,开启的

例如我们再来创建个文档,想要在一个叫qqbq的索引下创建

我们不去做创建一个叫qqbq的索引动作,而是直接往qqbq索引创建文档。

PUT /qqbq/_doc/789
{
  "name":"Helen",
  "age":20,
  "address":"天安云谷xx栋xx层",
  "url":"qqbq.top"
}

返回结果,创建成功

{
  "_index" : "qqbq",
  "_type" : "_doc",
  "_id" : "789",
  "_version" : 1,
  "result" : "created",
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 2,
    "successful" : 2,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "_seq_no" : 0,
  "_primary_term" : 1
}

查询一下索引情况

GET /_cat/indices?v

返回结果,可以看见ffbf、qqbq两个索引都已存在

health status index                           uuid                   pri rep docs.count docs.deleted store.size pri.store.size
green  open   .apm-custom-link                Xmj6MPxBT_ipIOZyTbwCQw   1   1          0            0       416b           208b
green  open   .kibana_task_manager_1          RmlBFYfNRSSXXJzlmMf8aA   1   1          5         5002        1mb        550.4kb
green  open   .apm-agent-configuration        QFeI8NB1R8OeOnSy51Z92w   1   1          0            0       416b           208b
green  open   .kibana-event-log-7.10.1-000001 p-r29FQyT6KWlM4C_hvIMw   1   1          2            0       22kb           11kb
green  open   qqbq                            lVGlJpM0RXOrA8WfhMauTA   1   1          1            0     10.6kb          5.3kb
green  open   ffbf                            7zMVV6IrQt6KrZBdIi26bw   2   2          4            0     48.8kb         16.2kb
green  open   .kibana_1                       9JoNLVfYTsaxpsYufqKI7g   1   1         33           10      4.2mb          2.1mb

关闭自动创建索引

如果你想要关闭自动创建索引,可以通过下面设置关闭

PUT /_cluster/settings
{
    "persistent": {
        "action.auto_create_index": "false" 
    }
}
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